As a major supplier of raw materials to the ceramic industry, we
strive to offer our customers consistent, top quality materials
that are competitively priced. On the following pages you will find
a listing of chemicals and materials currently available from
Marjon Ceramics. These products are listed in the following sub-
categories: Materials, Raw Clays, Frits and Stains. It was our
intention in preparing this section to give you, the user, as much
information as possible about these products. Where available from
the supplier, the chemical formula of the material is given. We
hope this section is useful to you as a reference guide to the
materials which are relevant to the ceramic field.
The materials available through this catalog are in grades of
purity which are most useful in the ceramic industry. Some of them
are not "pure" compounds and therefore, we are unable to warrant
the consistency of these materials from batch to batch. We urge you
to make thorough tests every time a new material or lot is
Some of the products listed in this catalog are noted as being
TOXIC, and special precautions should be taken when handling them.
However, even though a chemical may not be specially noted as being
TOXIC, it may still be harmful if ingested and a NIOSH approved
mask should be used when dust or mist is present. Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDS) are available upon request.
ALUMINA HYDRATE Al(OH)3
The usual source of alumina in glazes.
ALUMINA OXIDE Al2O3
Responsible for the mattness or brilliance of glazes. Prevents
devitrification and adds strength, insoluble in water and melts at
3550 F. Use of too much alumina can cause a dry appearance.
AMMONIA CITRATE (Ammonium)
A deflocculant for iron bearing glazes or bodies to control iron
BARIUM CARBONATE BaCo3
This is the main source of Barium Oxide in glazes. It functions as
a flux and assists in producing matt finishes. German barium may
also be used to neutralize sulfates in clay bodies.
A very plastic magnesium clay containing colloidal matter which in
small amounts lends plasticity to a clay body. Also used as a
suspending agent in glazes. We recommend bentonite 325 mesh as a
standard glaze and clay additive.
BONE ASH Ca3(PO4)2
An important source of phosphate. When added to a clay body such
as bone china, it lowers the maturing temperature and adds
translucency. Also used to give texture in low fire glazes.
A water soluble, low temperature flux which lowers the fusion point
of glazes and promotes a smooth melt. Produces bright colors with
oxides. Also a source of sodium and boric oxide in glazes.
Available in granular and powder.
An organic cellulose gum which functions as a thickener, a binder
and suspending agent in glazes. Mix with water to dissolve and age
before adding to a liquid glaze.
CALCIUM CARBONATE CaCo3
The most common source of calcia in glazes. It is a high
temperature flux which gives durability and hardness to glazes.
Includes whiting, vircon and marblewhite.
CALCIUM NITRATE Ca(No3)4H2O
A water soluble compound that is used as a thickener in glaze
CALCIUM ZIRCONIUM SILICATE CaMgOSiO2ZrO2
This opacifier produces a different result than whiting and can be
used singularly in the high temperature range up to cone 10. The
compound can be combined with other zirconium products; it can also
be used in low temperature glazes to produce zinc free matte
CHROME OXIDE-GREEN Cr2O3
A versatile colorant used in glazes to produce various green
COBALT CARBONATE CoCo3
A fine particle, lavender powder used as a glaze colorant and for
brushed decoration. Produces various shades of blue and where
manganese is present can give purple.
COBALT OXIDE Co3O4
A reliable, stable black powdered oxide. In small amounts it
produces consistently strong blue tones. Used as a glaze colorant
and brushing oxide decoration.
COBALT SULFATE CoSo47H2O
A water soluble reddish powder, sometimes used in white clay bodies
and glazes to create a "whiter" appearance as a result of imparting
a bluish tint; in other words, a cold white vs. a warm white.
COPPER CARBONATE CuCo3
A green powder used as a glaze colorant. Depending on conditions
and formulation it may produce green, blue-green or copper red.
COPPER OXIDE BLACK CuO
This is the oldest glaze colorant known. It is a strong flux and
will produce fluid glazes. Can produce copper reds in reduction
CORNWALL STONE NaK2O Al2O3 8SiO2
A type of spar used in clay bodies to give strength while firing.
Also used in engobes because of its adhesive properties. With tie
addition of a suitable flux, cornwall stone can be used as a glaze.
Sometimes called English Cornish Stone.
Synthetic Cryolite (Kryolite). A strong fluxing agent with a very
low melting point. A good sodium-alumina source. Occasionally used
as an opacifier for enamels, or to produce crackle glazes.
A binder used mostly with plaster.
Useful as a source of calcium and magnesium. It can be used as a
high temperature flux and also to promote crystal formations.
DYES (Water Soluble)
(The above colors are commonly used by manufacturers to color code
similar appearing clay or glaze batches.)
|Aniline Dye Brown
|| Blue 2-B Methylene
||Methyl Violet 125%
||Red Rhodamine B
|Green M Victoria
Crystalline minerals made up of mainly alkaline silicates. Used
extensively in both clay and glaze formulation.
A standard potash spar used in clay and glaze formulas. Mined in
Custer, South Dakota.
A potash spar, low in impurities, well suited for white glazes and
porcelain clay bodies.
A Mexican potash feldspar for use in clay bodies and glaze
PRIMAS S (Soda Spar)
A Mexican soda spar, an economical substitute for eastern soda
spars in most formulas.
|FELDSPAR ANALYSIS CHART
This crystalline mineral has a lower fluxing temperature than other
calcia compounds. It can be used as a substitute for whiting to
promote more fusible glazes. Insoluble in water, it should be used
at 100 mesh or finer or can cause modeling in glazes.
GERSTLEY BORATE Na2O 2CaO 5B2O3
A sodium-calcium-borate compound used as a low temperature flux
which helps prevent crazing. Can act somewhat as an opacifier.
Standard substitute for Colemanite.
A hard fired clay which is crushed to various mesh sizes. Add to
throwing and sculpture clay bodies to increase working strength and
reduce shrinkage. Also aids in drying thick pieces.
A fire clay grog with a particle size ranging from approx. 20 to
IONE 400 (20F)
Medium grind 20 mesh to fines. Grey-white in color.
IONE 406 (65F)
Extra fine grind 65 mesh to fines. Grey-white in color.
IONE 412 (35F)
Fine grind 35 mesh to fines. Grey-white in color.
IONE 420 (20X48)
Coarse grind 20-48 mesh grog. Grey-white in color.
Ground ceramic sewer pipe grog. Fired to cone 9. Precision ground
to finer than 48 mesh.
A powdered natural gum material used as a binder and suspending
agent in glazes.
An organic substance extracted from a tree which grows in Levant.
It acts as a type of glue and is used as a binder for glaze-fit to
clay bodies during firing. It is a good emulsifying agent.
A material used to produce specks in glazes above cone 4 firing
temperatures. Available in granular and powder.
IRON CHROMATE FeCrO3
Produces dark colors in engobes and underglazes. Can also be added
with manganese compounds to clay bodies as a colorant.
A weaker form of iron - high clay content.
BLACK 5599 Fe3O4
Ferrous oxide. Produces various shades of brown or green when used
as a glaze colorant or decorative oxide. In high fire matt glazes,
iron oxide and titanium can produce reddish colors.
RED 4284 Fe2O3
Ferric oxide. Basically the same as black iron oxide except not as
concentrated. 82%-86% natural and synthetic iron oxides. Our
standard red iron oxide.
BROWN 521 Fe2O3
A natural iron oxide. Reddish-brown raw color.
KRYOLITE (See Cryolite)
A refractory material used to reduce shrinkage in clay bodies and
give strength to the body. Can form mullite during firing.
Available in 48 and 200 mesh.
LEAD CARBONATE (White Lead) 2PbCO3Pb(OH)2
A once important raw material but now seldom used due to high
toxicity. It is a strong flux which promotes an extremely smooth
LEAD MONOSILICATE PbO O 67SiO2
This is a fritted source of lead and silica which is safer to
handle than raw lead because it is bonded in a glass. The melting
point is 725-750 degrees C. Lead monosilicate is free from un-
combined lead oxides and silica.
Yellow lead monoxide. A source of lead in frits. Contains
impurities and has a larger particle size than lead oxide, but is
often used for the same purposes.
LITHIUM CARBONATE Li2CO3
Used as a flux in leadless glazes. It is a source of lithia which
is a strong high temperature flux. Improves the brightness of
glazes and increases the firing range. Also reduces thermal
expansion. Available in fine or coarse.
A suspension agent which increases the drying rate of water
suspended glazes. It is similar to a very clean, white type of
MAGNESIUM CARBONATE MgCO3
Common source of magnesium in glazes. Imparts strength and color
with little shrinkage. In larger proportions, it produces a dry
opaque quality in glazes.
MAGNESIUM SULFATE MgO4S7H2O
Also known as epsom salts, it can thicken a glaze to improve
adhesion to non-porous surfaces. Also acts as a suspension
MANGANESE CARBONATE MnCO3
A weak coloring agent. In an alkaline glaze, a blue-purple or plum
color can be obtained. In leadless glazes, a purple brown may
result. It is a powerful flux.
MANGANESE DIOXIDE MnO2
A black powder which gives red, brown, purple or black tones to
clay bodies and glazes. A strong flux when added in large amounts
to clay bodies.
MICA (325) K2Al4Al2Si6O20(OH)4
Water ground, 325 mesh powder. Usually added to a glaze formula to
aid in craze resistance. Also helps thermal and moisture expansion
Virginia 35 mesh mullite can be added to a clay body to check
thermal expansion. It adds strength because of the needle-like
shape of its crystals. (Calcined Kyanite)
NEPHELINE SYENITE K2O 3Na2O 4Al2O
Similar to a soda spar. It can reduce crazing tendencies when added
to a clay body. Also used in glazes where a soda spar is required.
NICKEL CARBONATE NiCo3
Common glaze colorant. Green nickel produces a variety of browns,
blues, grays and yellows depending on the presence of other
materials in the glaze.
NICKEL OXIDE NiO
Black nickel produces browns, blues, grays and yellows in glazes.
It can also tone down more intense colorants such as cobalt and
copper. Maximum use is usually 3%.
PETALITE Li2O Al2 O3 8SiO2
A lithium feldspar which is used both in clay bodies and glazes to
help decrease thermal shock problems.
POTASSIUM CARBONATE K2CO3
Also known as pearl ash, it is a strong flux and can be used as a
color modifier in glazes.
Also known as volcanic ash, it is a type of feldspar which can be
used in glazes. It is not desirable in clay bodies.
PYROPHYLLITE Al2O3 4SiO2H2O
An aluminum silicate which is added to clay bodies to reduce
An iron-bearing clay which is used as a colorant in engobes,
stains, underglazes and overglaze decoration.
RUTILE, CERAMIC GRADE TiO2
An impure titanium dioxide tan colorant which contains a small
amount of iron. Used both for color and its tendency to provide
various mottled textures.
Relatively pure silica sands which can be used in place of grog in
clay bodies to add texture and strength. Begins to soften at cone
CRYSTAL 30 MESH
Coarse 30 mesh silica sand.
CRYSTAL 60 MESH
Medium 60 mesh silica sand.
CRYSTAL 90 MESH
Fine 90 mesh silica sand.
Also known as flint, this is the most common source of silica in
clay bodies and glazes. Increases the thermal expansion in clays
and decreases the thermal expansion in glazes. Also used to raise
the melting point in glaze. Available in 200 and 325 mesh.
SILICON CARBIDE FFF SiC
A reduction agent used in glazes. Ground to 450-600 mesh. (FFF)
SODA ASH Na2CO3
Sodium carbonate. This is an active flux which serves an important
function as a deflocculant in preparing liquid slip. It increases
strength and workability and reduces shrinkage.
SODIUM BICARBONATE NaHCO3
Baking soda. Used in making Egyptian paste clays.
A source of lithia, which is a flux, that helps to develop copper
blue tone glazes. Can replace feldspar and also reduces the
vitrification temperature and shrinkage rate in glazes. Chemical
STRONTIUM CARBONATE SrCO3
Similar to calcium. Good in cone 1 to cone 10.
A popular zircon opacifier that's used in a wide variety of
applications. It's effective in controlling texture, craze
resistance and color stability in glazes.
A California talc, white to off-white in raw form (white when
fired) and low in organic material. CT-30 is a platy talc which is
used by itself or in combination with westex and pioneer talcs, and
is a major component in low fire casting and moist clay bodies.
A white burning Texas talc low in calcium and grey in unfired
state. Yields good green strength and plasticity. Used in Marjon
slip (item #'s 1&2).
TIN OXIDE SnO2
The most effective opacifier to produce even, opaque, glossy
glazes. The normal use of tin oxide in a glaze is between 5% and
10%. A dull mat glaze can result when used in excess.
TITANIUM DIOXIDE TiO2
Insoluble in water. Important opacifier. Often used in glaze to
affect acid resistance, color and texture.
TRI-CALCIUM PHOSPHATE Ca3(PO4)2
Similar to bone ash, it will work well in high or low temperature
glazes. A white amorphous powder. Insoluble in cold water,
decomposes in hot water. Produces phosphate and has successfully
been used to replace tin oxide in some raw, leadless sanitary ware
glazes maturing at 2280 degrees Fahrenheit. When used in most bases
(8-15%) will produce a lava effect at cone 06.
A hydrated ferric oxide with manganese dioxide. It is used for
brush decoration to produce a reddish-brown. Also can be added to
clay bodies to achieve a darker color.
A macaloid type bentonite suspension agent for glazes. Also used
as a surface hardener. It is an extremely plastic, hydrous
magnesium silicate used to give plasticity to non-plastic whiteware
and refractory bodies. Very similar to macaloid.
Exfoliated mica, a low refractory insulating material used for
exterior kiln insulation. Also used as a filler to reduce weight
of plaster of cement products.
(See Calcium Carbonate)
A natural calcium silicate used to reduce shrinkage in clay bodies
and glazes during firing. Can replace silica and whiting. Also aids
in fast firing of clay bodies.
ZINC OXIDE ZnO
A useful, high temperature flux. It increases the maturing range
of glazes and produces bright, glossy colors. Also may be used to
give opacity to glazes.
ZINC ZIRCONIUM SILICATE ZnZrSiO5
An opacifier which gives brilliance to the color of a glaze.
Usually combined with other zircon compounds.
The original zirconium opacifier. Used mostly where semi-opaqueness
LIQUID RAW MATERIALS
CALCIUM NITRATE SOLUTION Ca(NO2)2 4H2O
Sets the poise (reducing settling, running, etc.) in dipping and
spraying glazes. Used as an oxidizing agent in zircon and titania
COBALT SULFATE SOLUTION CoSo4 7H2O
A liquified cobalt compound often used to color white clays and
glazes with a blue tint. Additionally, it is used as a decolorizer
in clay bodies. Also assists spray solutions for art pottery.
A deflocculant that is user friendly because it has a wider
deflocculation curve. Does not deteriorate molds as actively as
does sodium silicate.
Used to set and harden the surface of glaze and overglaze to
facilitate faster glazing procedures.
GUM SOLUTION (CMC)
A liquified binder, thickener, suspension and brushing medium agent
made of an organic cellulose gum. Also used to increase plasticity
of clay bodies.
This product is a concentrated mold release product. Suggest
diluting 3 to 1 with water.
SODIUM SILICATE Na2O SiO2
Liquid "N" brand sodium silicate is used as a major deflocculant
in preparing slip. It reduces the amount of water needed, therefore
reducing shrinkage. This is a pure sodium silicate and must be
mixed with water to a 50/50 solution for most casting bodies.
A wax emulsion. This wax resist is an excellent, ready to use
product. It has the results of paraffin wax without the mess or
danger of heating.
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